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Disorders Of Respiratory System


1. Bronchitis is inflammation of bronchi, resulting in the swelling of mucous lining of bronchi there by decrease of diameter of air passage. Main symptom of bronchitis is chronic cough with mucous (phlegm).


2.Asthma is caused due to inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles. It is characterised by the spasm of smooth muscles in the walls of bronchi and bronchioles. Main symptoms are coughing, difficulty in breathing and wheezing. In asthma the allergen causes release of histamine and other substances which cause constriction of bronchi.


3. Pneumonia - is resulted due to infection of lungs by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, viruses, fungi etc. Accumulation of fluid/mucus in alveoli, inflammation of lungs and impaired exchange of gases etc., are main symptoms of pneumonia.

4. Emphysema is a chronic disorder of lungs in which alveolar walls are damaged and collapse. Hence surface area of gaseous exchange is decreased. Lungs contain few larger alveoli which are fibrous and less elastic. It is mainly due smoking of tobacco.